Cache L1, L2, L3

If you have been shopping for a computer, then you have heard the word “cache.” Modern computer­s have both L1 and L2 caches, and many now also have L3 cache. You may also have gotten advice on the topic from well-meaning friends, perhaps something like “Don’t buy that Celeron chip, it doesn’t have any cache in it!” ­

Caching is a technology based on the memory subsystem of your computer. The main purpose of a cache is to accelerate your computer while keeping the price of ­the computer low. Caching allows you to do your computer tasks more rapidly.

Cache technology is the use of a faster but smaller memory type to accelerate a slower but larger memory type.
When using a cache, you must check the cache to see if an item is in there. If it is there, it’s called a cache hit. If not, it is called a cache miss and the computer must wait for a round trip from the larger, slower memory area.
A cache has some maximum size that is much smaller than the larger storage area.
It is possible to have multiple layers of cache.

A computer is a machine in which we measure time in very small increments. When­ the microprocessor accesses the main memory (RAM), it does it in about 60 nanoseconds (60 billionths of a second). That’s pretty fast, but it is much slower than the typical microprocessor. Microprocessors can have cycle times as short as 2 nanoseconds, so to a microprocessor 60 nanoseconds seems like an eternity.

What if we build a special memory bank in the motherboard, small but very fast (around 30 nanoseconds)? That’s already two times faster than the main memory access. That’s called a level 2 cache or an L2 cache. What if we build an even smaller but faster memory system directly into the microprocessor’s chip? That way, this memory will be accessed at the speed of the microprocessor and not the speed of the memory bus. That’s an L1 cache, which on a 233-megahertz (MHz) Pentium is 3.5 times faster than the L2 cache, which is two times faster than the access to main memory.

Some microprocessors have two levels of cache built right into the chip. In this case, the motherboard cache — the cache that exists between the microprocessor and main system memory — becomes level 3, or L3 cache.

There are a lot of subsystems in a computer; you can put cache between many of them to improve performance. Here’s an example. We have the microprocessor (the fastest thing in the computer). Then there’s the L1 cache that caches the L2 cache that caches the main memory which can be used (and is often used) as a cache for even slower peripherals like hard disks and CD-ROMs. The hard disks are also used to cache an even slower medium — your Internet connection.

Caching Subsystems

Your Internet connection is the slowest link in your computer. So your browser (Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, etc.) uses the hard disk to store HTML pages, putting them into a special folder on your disk. The first time you ask for an HTML page, your browser renders it and a copy of it is also stored on your disk. The next time you request access to this page, your browser checks if the date­ of the file on the Internet is newer than the one cached. If the date is the same, your browser uses the one on your hard disk instead of downloading it from Internet. In this case, the smaller but faster memory system is your hard disk and the larger and slower one is the Internet.

Cache can also be built directly on peripherals. Modern hard disks come with fast memory, around 512 kilobytes, hardwired to the hard disk. The computer doesn’t directly use this memory — the hard-disk controller does. For the computer, these memory chips are the disk itself. When the computer asks for data from the hard disk, the hard-disk controller checks into this memory before moving the mechanical parts of the hard disk (which is very slow compared to memory). If it finds the data that the computer asked for in the cache, it will return the data stored in the cache without actually accessing data on the disk itself, saving a lot of time.

One common question asked at this point is, “Why not make all of the com­puter’s memory run at the same speed as the L1 cache, so no caching would be required?” That would work, but it would be incredibly expensive. The idea behind caching is to use a small amount of expensive memory to speed up a large amount of slower, less-expensive memory.

In designing a computer, the goal is to allow the microprocessor to run at its full speed as inexpensively as possible. A 500-MHz chip goes through 500 million cycles in one second (one cycle every two nanoseconds). Without L1 and L2 caches, an access to the main memory takes 60 nanoseconds, or about 30 wasted cycles accessing memory.

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